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هل المركب +CH3NH3 حمض مرافق أم قاعدة مرافقة؟

درس القواعد والاحماض مفهوم برونستد لوري


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نظرية برونستد - لوري للأحماض والقواعد

- في عام 1923 وضع الدنماركي جونز برونشتد والأنجليزى توماس لوري نظريتهما عن الحمض والقاعدة.

- وقد تم تعريف الحمض والقاعدة كالتالي:

وهذا معناه أن يكون اتحاد الحمض والقاعدة هو أن الحمض أى مادة تعطى البروتون والقاعدة هى أى مادة تستقبل البروتون أى أن التفاعل هو انتقال للبروتون من الحمض إلى القاعدة.

- عند إذابة حمض HCl فى الماء يعتبر HCl حمضاً لأنه يمنح بروتوناً إلى الماء وبالتالي يعتبر الماء قاعدة لأنه يكتسب هذا البروتون ويصبح أيون الكلوريد -Cl قاعدة مرافقة بينما أيون الهيدرونيوم +H3O حمض مرافق.

كما أن التعريف يسمح لنا باعتبار الأمونيا (النشادر) قاعدة والماء حمض كالتالي:

فعندما يمنح الحمض بروتوناً يتحول إلى قاعدة وعندما تكتسب القاعدة هذا البروتون تتحول إلى حمض 

الأمينات قواعد

- أن زوج الإلكترونات غير الرابط على ذرة النيتروجين هو المتحكم في معظم الخواص الكيميائية للأمينات لأنه يعمل كقاعدة وكنيوكلوفيل.

- وعليه فأن CH3NH2 يسلك سلوك القواعد لأنه عندما يدخل فى التفاعلات يكون جاهزاً لأستقبال البروتون

- فى التفاعلات الآتية :

+CH3NH2 + H2O ↔ OH- + CH3NH3

+CH3NH2 + HCl  ↔ Cl- + CH3NH3

فى كلا التفاعلين نجد أن CH3NH2 يتفاعل كقاعدة برونستد (يستقبل البروتون) وعليه يكون +CH3NH3 حمض مرافق.

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